# Methods of Proof in Mathematics

### Methods of Proof in Mathematics Course Menu

This course is an introduction to abstract mathematics, with an emphasis on the techniques of mathematical proof (direct, contradiction, conditional, contraposition). Topics to be covered include logic, set theory, relations, functions and cardinality.
Prerequisite: Calculus lll

Note: This course is proof based. All homework assignments, exams and the final are graded by the instructor.

1. Sets

1.1. Describing a Set

1.2. Subsets

1.3. Set Operations

1.4. Indexed Collections of Sets

1.5. Partitions of Sets

1.6. Cartesian Products of Sets

2. Logic

2.1. Statements

2.2. The Negation of a Statement

2.3. The Disjunction and Conjunction of Statements

2.4. The Implication

2.5. More on Implications

2.6. The Biconditional

2.8. Logical Equivalence

2.9. Some Fundamental Properties of Logical Equivalence

2.10. Quantified Statements

2.11. Characterizations of Statements

3. Direct Proof and Proof by Contraposition

3.1. Trivial and Vacuous Proofs

3.2. Direct Proofs

3.3. Proof by Contrapositive

3.4. Proof by Cases

3.5. Proof Evaluations

4. More on Direct Proof and Proof by Contrapositive

4.1. Proofs Involving Divisibility of Integers

4.2. Proofs Involving Congruence of Integers

4.3. Proofs Involving Real Numbers

4.4. Proofs Involving Sets

4.5. Fundamental Properties of Set Operations

4.6. Proofs Involving Cartesian Products of Sets

5. Existence and Proof by Contradiction

5.1. Counterexamples

5.3. A Review of Three Proof Techniques

5.4. Existence Proofs

5.5. Disproving Existence Statements

6. Mathematical Induction

6.1. The Principle of Mathematical Induction

6.2. A More General Principle of Mathematical Induction

6.3. Proof By Minimum Counterexample

6.4. The Strong Principle of Mathematical Induction

8. Equivalence Relations

8.1. Relations

8.2. Properties of Relations

8.3. Equivalence Relations

8.4. Properties of Equivalence Classes

8.5. Congruence Modulo n

8.6. The Integers Modulo n

9. Functions

9.1. The Definition of a Function

9.2. The Set of All Functions from A to B

9.3. One-to-one and Onto Functions

9.4. Bijective Functions

9.5. Composition of Functions

9.6. Inverse Functions

9.7. Permutations

10. Cardinalities of Sets

10.1. Numerically Equivalent Sets

10.2. Denumerable Sets

10.3. Uncountable Sets